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Can You Guess Where These International Beers Are From?

Can You Guess Where These International Beers Are From?


Test your knowledge of where some of the world’s most popular drinks come from

Can you guess which beers are from where?

Everybody knows what country Guinness comes from, but there are some beers that you just can’t tell the origins of — unless you read the labels. But don’t cheat! We’ve put together a list of five national beers from around the world, so this #ThistyThursday, make sure you show off your worldly knowledge.

We combed through our list of the world’s most iconic national beers — again, don’t peek! — and choose a few that are, um, let’s call them ethnically ambiguous.

Click through our slideshow — the answer to the question will be on the slide directly after the question — to see if you can tell a Stella from a Peroni, or a Singha from a Bintang.

If this quiz isn’t enough to convince you that you need to go on a beer pilgrimage around the world, then our list of the world’s 50 best beers definitely will.


15 Beer Styles All Savvy Drinkers Need to Know

If you walk into your local bar and find your head swimming at the sheer number of options on the beer list, you're not alone. The list of recognized beer subcategories grows larger every day. If obscure classics such as salty-sour goses and herbal gruits weren't enough to bewilder the casual beer drinker, regional and hybrid styles such as India pale lagers and Black IPAs only add to the confusion. But lucky for you, each beer style must adhere to some standard characteristics, so you can get a sense of what your brew will taste like, even if you order outside your comfort zone.


How to Use the Study Guide

Downloadable Resources

The CraftBeer.com Beer Styles Study Guide (below and available as a PDF) is for those who want to dive even deeper and includes quantitative style statistics not found in the Beer Styles section. Using an alphabetical list of triggers — from alcohol to yeast variety — this text will help describe possible characteristics of a specific beer style.

The best part of learning about craft beer is getting to taste and experience what you’re studying. Use the CraftBeer.com Tasting Sheet to help you analyze and describe what you taste and if it’s appropriate for a particular beer style.

The Beer Styles Study Guide may provide more information than many beer novices care to know. However, as your beer journey unfolds, your desire for more descriptors and resources will grow.


Miller Lite

Miller Lite was the first successful mainstream light beer in the United States market. [8] After its first inception as "Gablinger's Diet Beer", developed in 1967 by Joseph L. Owades, PhD, a biochemist working for New York's Rheingold Brewery, [9] the recipe was given by Owades to Chicago's Peter Hand Brewing. [10] That year, Peter Hand Brewing was purchased by a group of investors, renamed Meister Brau Brewing, and Lite was soon introduced as Meister Brau Lite, a companion to their flagship Meister Brau. Under the new management, Meister Brau Brewing encountered significant financial problems, and in 1972, sold several of its existing labels to Miller. The recipe was relaunched simply as "Lite" on packaging and in advertising (with "Lite Beer from Miller" being its "official" name until the late '90s) in the test markets of Springfield, Illinois, Providence, Rhode Island, Knoxville, Tennessee, and San Diego, California, [11] in 1973, and heavily marketed using masculine pro sports players and other, so-called, macho figures of the day in an effort to sell to the key beer-drinking male demographic. Miller Lite was introduced nationally in 1975. [12]

Miller's heavy-advertising approach worked where the two previous light beers had failed, and Miller's early production totals of 12.8 million barrels quickly increased to 24.2 million barrels by 1977 as Miller rose to 2nd place in the American brewing marketplace. Other brewers responded, in particular Anheuser-Busch with its heavily advertised Bud Light in 1982, which eventually overtook Lite in sales by 1994. Anheuser-Busch played on the branding style of "Lite" by highlighting the fact that their beer was called "Bud Light" as "everything else is just a light". In 1992, light beers became the biggest domestic beer in America, and in 1998, Miller relabeled its "Lite" brand as "Miller Lite". [13]

In 2008, Miller Brewing Company test-marketed three new recipes – an amber, a blonde ale, and a wheat – under the Miller Lite brand, marketed as Miller Lite Brewers Collection. [14]

In December 2013, as part of a product placement marketing campaign with the film Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues, Miller reintroduced the 1974 navy-blue blackletter font "Lite" packaging on its 16-US-fluid-ounce (470 ml) cans for a limited time (the original 1972 cans used a light-blue script logo). However, the vintage packaging was such a success that by September 2014, the company decided to switch back to the vintage packaging full-time, including on bottles and tap handles, mirroring the unexpected success that PepsiCo had in 2009 with its Pepsi Throwback & Mountain Dew Throwback lines in tapping into the retro-themed packaging market. The unexpected sales increase, combined with wanting to differentiate the packaging from Bud Light, were factors in the decision, with some consumers even stating that Miller actually improved on the taste when nothing changed in the beer itself. [15] [16]

At the 2010 and 2014 Great American Beer Festival, Miller Lite won the gold medal for Best American Style Lager or Light Lager, besting Miller Genuine Draft. [ citation needed ] The beer ranked #1 on the list of top 100 beers by the Cold Cans podcast. [17]

Miller Lite's long-running "Tastes Great. Less Filling!" advertising campaign was ranked by Advertising Age magazine as the eighth best advertising campaign in history. The campaign was developed by the advertising agency McCann-Erickson Worldwide. [18] In the prime of the campaign, television commercials typically portrayed a Lite Beer drinker noting its great taste followed by another who observed that it was less filling. This usually led to a parody of Wild West saloon fights in which every patron got involved in the dispute for no real reason, though in this case it was always a shouting match, and blows were never thrown. The commercials were closed with a voice-over from actor Eddie Barth, who read the slogan, "Lite Beer from Miller: Everything you've always wanted in a beer. And less." [19]

The then-recently retired New York Jets running back Matt Snell was the first person to appear in Miller Lite's first commercial in 1973.

To attract 'Joe Sixpack' to a light beer, these commercials started to feature both elite ex-athletes such as Ray Nitschke, Ben Davidson, and Bubba Smith but also oddball cultural figures such as Mickey Spillane (accompanied by a blonde, Lee Meredith, who is better known for her role as Ulla, the secretary in The Producers), and comedian Rodney Dangerfield. As the series of commercials went on, it began featuring athletes and celebrities of all sorts. Some commercials from this era include:

  • Former Major League catcher and Milwaukee Brewers broadcaster Bob Uecker being moved from his seat at a ballgame, and escorted away by an usher. Uecker exclaims "I must be in the front row," but ends up in the back row of the stands. This gave rise to the term "Bob Uecker seats". [20]
  • Heavyweight boxing champion Joe Frazier walking into a full bar as part of a barbershop quartet while the on-screen caption says "Joe Frazier, Famous Heavyweight Singer". The quartet sings "do like Smokin' Joe" and the song goes on to praise Miller Lite's advantages. [21]
  • Former Baltimore Orioles first baseman Boog Powell and former umpire Jim Honochick doing a spot together, with Honochick unaware who he is standing next to, until he puts his glasses on at the end, and exclaims, "Hey - you're Boog Powell!" [citation needed]
  • Footballer and actor Bubba Smith proclaims at the end of a spot, "I also like the easy-opening can", then tears off the top third of an aluminum Miller Lite can. In a later ad, pro ten-pin bowlerDon Carter laments that bowlers are athletes too, and attempts to prove it by repeating Smith's feat, but struggles to do so. [citation needed]
  • When Billy Martin and George Steinbrenner were in the middle of their 1970s feuds [clarification needed] , they did an ad with Martin saying, "Tastes great, George", and Steinbrenner replying, "Less filling, Billy!", back and forth until Steinbrenner finally says, "You're fired!" (changed to "You're hired!" when Martin was re-hired by Steinbrenner in real life). Martin replies, "Not Again!" [citation needed]

As the popularity of the ads and the number of athletes and celebrities that appeared in them grew, Miller produced occasional "alumni" ads featuring all of the stars, generally in some sort of competition between the 'Less Fillings' and the 'Taste Greats'. The ads usually ended with Rodney Dangerfield somehow being the goat of the losing team. In one of the last spots to feature Dangerfield, the Miller Lite alumni are competing in a bowling match. It is the last frame of a tie game, and Ben Davidson grumbles to Dangerfield, "All we need is one pin, Rodney." Dangerfield rolls the ball down the lane, only to have it bounce horizontally off the head pin and into the gutter, knocking down zero pins.

As part of this campaign, Miller Brewing ran a series of television commercials in the winter of 1993–1994 showing several fictitious "extreme sports" such as "Wiener Dog Drag Racing" (which featured two wiener dogs racing each other at a drag racing strip), "Sumo High Dive" (which depicted a Japanese sumo wrestler diving off a platform) and "The Miss Perfect Face-Off" (which featured beauty pageant contestants playing ice hockey). The tag line that followed was, "If you can combine great taste with less filling, you can combine anything." and the question "Can your beer do this?"

In 1995-1996, Miller Lite ran the "Life Is Good" campaign, which showed Miller Lite drinkers' aspirational transition to more fun via a Miller Lite bottle tap, like "Beach Rewind", where three men on a beach admired three beautiful women walking by, and could rewind, and enjoy, the scene repeatedly. The campaign was developed by Leo Burnett Company, and received the American Marketing Association EFFIE award for outstanding advertising effectiveness. The campaign included celebrities such as Larry Bird, Keith Jackson, and Richard Karn. [22]

Beginning January 12, 1997, a series of surrealistic Miller Lite ads, purportedly made by a man named "Dick", began to air. They were hallmarked as such either at the beginning or the end of the commercial. The campaign was developed by Minneapolis-based ad agency Fallon. The series of "Dick" commercials was directed by Gerald Casale of the new wave band Devo. Such commercials include one where a middle-aged man sees the message "twist to open" on a Miller Lite bottle cap, and he proceeds to do the Twist. [23]

The ad campaign changed back to using high-profile celebrities who were either on opposite ends of the spectrum or had bragging rights to exchange with the other. Notable pairings included the following:

    and Robin Yount. Brett and Yount were both elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1999 with 98 and 77 percent of the vote respectively while Yount won two MVP awards to Brett's one. and George Hamilton. Winter's albinism was a stark contrast to the tanned look of Hamilton on screen. and Dan Fouts. Stabler needles Fouts about never getting to or winning a Super Bowl while Fouts lets Stabler know about his inferior passing statistics.

In 2003, "Catfight", another high-profile commercial in the long-running "Great Taste. Less Filling" campaign, was denounced by critics as depicting women as sexual objects. [24] The commercial featured two beautiful young women, a blonde (Tanya Ballinger) and a brunette (Kitana Baker), discussing the classic "Great Taste/Less Filling" debate, except they engaged in a catfight, hence the ad's title. The fight moving from a fountain to a mud pit, with the girls stripping each other of their clothing in the process. An uncensored version of the commercial ended in the muddy beauties, stripped down to their underwear, sharing a passionate kiss. The girls received much publicity from the commercial, and later starred in a few related commercials, videos and events.

In 2006, Miller Lite had an advertising campaign called Man Laws featuring celebrities that include actor Burt Reynolds, professional wrestler Triple H, comedian Eddie Griffin, and former American football player Jerome Bettis. The celebrities and other actors were in a "Men of the Square Table", a group meeting where they discuss different situations that should be included in the "Man Laws". The ads were developed by the ad agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky/Miami, and were directed by comedy film director Peter Farrelly. [25]

In June 2010, commercials premiered featuring actresses Lindsey McKeon and Nadine Heimann as bartenders.

In 2020, the Venice, California based podcast known as Dirty Sports was sponsored by the Miller Lite brand. This move is an illustration of larger brands moving into the podcast sphere.

Motorsport sponsorship Edit

Miller Brewing Company began their NASCAR sponsorship in 1983 with driver Bobby Allison, advertising the Miller High Life brand and later in 1990 with driver Rusty Wallace, advertising the Miller Genuine Draft brand. In 1997, the company began advertising the Miller Lite brand on Wallace's #2 Penske Racing car. The car later earned the nickname "Blue Deuce", due to its number and blue paint scheme. Wallace retired following the 2005 season, and Kurt Busch was named as his replacement. Busch drove the "Blue Deuce" from 2006 to 2010. The car is currently driven by Brad Keselowski, who won the 2012 Sprint Cup Series championship.

Other promotion in motorsport included the sponsoring of Don Prudhomme's Larry Dixon-driven NHRA top fuel dragster from 1997 to 2007. Prior to that, Dixon was sponsored by Miller Genuine Draft. Additionally, Miller Brewing sponsored the Unlimited hydroplane of R.B. "Bob" Taylor in 1984 with the U-7 "Lite All-Star", driven by Tom D'Eath. The following year, Miller switched teams and brands with the "Miller American" Unlimited hydroplane owned by Fran Muncey and Jim Lucero—which resulted in the 1985 National Championship, and APBA Gold Cup wins in 1985, 1986, and 1987, driven by Chip Hanauer.

For the first time in a video game, it was featured in NASCAR '15: Victory Edition and NASCAR Heat Evolution as a sponsor available to users verified to be over 21 years of age.


3. Grenada

About 100 miles north of Venezuela, Grenada is also known as the “Spice Island.” Travelers can visit inland chocolate and spice farms, or explore the streets of the beautiful harbor capital of St. George’s.

What you need to know: Visitors need a negative PCR test within three days of travel. Before traveling, you’ll need a travel certificate. After quarantining at a government-approved accommodation, you can leave after four or five days, as long as you have another negative COVID-19 test. St. Kitts and Nevis ATGImages


The 36 Best Beers You Can Buy Online Or At Your Local Store

We've got it all: mainstream lagers, cult-status IPAs, innovative craft stouts, and more.

It's been brewing for a while, but at this point, it's safe to say: We're in the golden age of beer. And that means it's a great time to expand your horizons&mdashto embrace your favorites and learn more about them or discover totally new-to-you styles. To help you do just that, we've rounded up 37 of the best beers you can sip on right now. From mainstream lagers and historic Belgian ales to cult-status IPAs and innovative craft stouts, these are the hits: the flagship beers, the genre-establishing beers, the experimental beers that took off.

What's more? It's easier than ever to try out bottles and cans, both new and old, without leaving home. Shop all our picks right here, and get them delivered straight to your home. Ready, set, cheers!

Looking for something more specific? Check out our favorite low-carb beers and Irish varieties. Or can we interest you in some recipes? These three are perennial hits: beer-battered fish, beer cheese dip, and beer can chicken.

Mexican lagers are a warm-weather classic, and few have stood the test of time like Modelo Especial. This iconic favorite is a shining example of what makes Mexican lagers great. Mexican brewing traditions shaped the Vienna lager style into something uniquely its own&mdashsubtly toasty and caramel-forward with a dry finish that keeps is crisp. If you're not having a Modelo Especial with your tacos or at your barbecues, you're doing it wrong.

Another refreshing easy drinker is Miller High Life. Having been around since 1903, this lager is a key piece of American beer history. Even if you're not old enough to have seen the commercials firsthand, you remember the 1970s-era jingle, "If you've got the time, we've got the beer." High Life is just so clean and simple that even craft beer and cocktail pros count it as their mainstream brew of choice, and its "Champagne of Beers" identity is an endearing play on the high-low concept. From daytime gatherings to late night bar visits, Miller High Life is a familiar comfort.

Big Beer, a.k.a. Budweiser and Coors, are most often associated with light lagers. Craft breweries make them too, though, and the results are typically even better. The Nite Lite Craft Light Lager from Night Shift Brewing in Massachusetts converted anti-light lager craft fans. The Nite Lite is a lager at its cleanest, most balanced, and bubbliest.

Few beers can claim a history that dates back to the 13th century, but the purely perfect Pilsner Urquell is just that legendary. It's crafted in Plzen in the Czech Republic, a city that's famous for its soft water, which gives a nice, round finish to what would become the classic Czech pilsner. Made since 1842, Pilsner Urquell is easily the style's best known and best loved iteration.

Not all lagers are light. A schwarzbier is a traditional German style that combines the easy-drinking nature of a lager (clean, low in alcohol) with the complex flavor profile of a porter or stout (roastiness, coffee, chocolate). It's essentially, and sometimes called, a dark lager. One of the original producers of schwarzbier is Köstritzer, which has been brewing in Germany since 1543.

The Weihenstephan Abbey Brewery is one of the world's oldest, founded in 1040. Its Hefe Weissbier is brimming with history&mdashand a German wheat beer's special flavors of banana and clove. It's also a total trail-blazer as far as Germany's beers are concerned. The country's 1516 law requires German beer to be made only from water, hops, and barley (and later, when fermentation was understood, yeast). until Georg Schneider acquired a dispensation in 1872 and commercial breweries began to make wheat beers.

Schöfferhofer's Grapefruit Hefeweizen is a fresh&mdashand refreshing&mdashtake on the essential German wheat beer for anyone who enjoys a fruity beer. The brewery made the first grapefruit hefeweizen in 2007. This beer is half hefeweizen, half grapefruit, so those banana, clove, and bread flavors are brightened with tart citrus. While delicious on its own, it's also a great base for beer cocktails.

Bell's Brewery in Michigan quickly became the forefather of the American approach to wheat beers with the Oberon Ale. American wheat ales don't have the banana and clove flavors of German versions, instead playing up the wheaty-ness with subtle fruit aromas and a touch of spice from the hops. Bell's Oberon is so popular that when it's rolled out each year, the brewery and bars and shops who stock the beer celebrate with events and parties there's even a holiday for it.

California's Lagunitas Brewing Co. is famous for its IPA, but the brewery has another flagship beer that fans love. Lagunitas takes the American wheat ale one step further with the Little Sumpin' Sumpin' Ale, a beer that brings the wheat style into bolder territory with a hoppy twist.

The Fat Tire Amber Ale is somewhat of a beer industry darling. Colorado's New Belgium Brewing was one of the earliest trailblazers in what we now know as craft beer, and co-founder Kim Jordan is revered as an important game-changer in what has historically been a male-dominated industry. The Fat Tire is named for Jordan and partner Jeff Lebesch's bicycling trip through Belgium that inspired them to open a brewery, and it was one of the first two beers they sold in 1991. Other breweries have held the Fat Tire as a model for well-balanced amber ales ever since.

Since opening in 2003, Yazoo has inspired a vibrant beer scene to bubble up in Nashville. The Dos Perros Ale is one of its beloved flagship brews. It's a Mexican-style take on the brown ale, first made in England in the 17th century. Dos Perros nails the brown ale's nutty malt character with a touch of chocolate, but lightens things up as Mexican brewers frequently do with flaked maize for a perfect balance.

If it's something more straightforward you're after, Newcastle Brown Ale is like the brown ale poster child. The English beer has been brewed since 1927, and it's a can't-fail classic you can count on when you see it on the menu. Brewed with pale and crystal malts, it's light and bready with touches of nuttiness and dried fruit.

Today, Belgium's beer scene is richly varied between independent breweries and Trappist breweries (certain abbeys that make beer) producing beautiful interpretations of iconic styles. More recently, as in during the 20th century, Belgian brewers sought to compete with German and Czech lagers with lighter styles, and the blonde ale was born. The Leffe Blonde Ale is the most classic, widely known and loved version of the effervescent, grainy-sweet, orange-y and lemon-y and sometimes a little spicy style.

Chimay's Grande Reserve is for when you're feeling a little fancy. Popping that cork is the beer equivalent of popping a nice bottle of champagne. The Grande Reserve is a Belgian Strong Ale, which boasts a bouquet of caramel, toast, plum, fig, raisin, pepper, and perfume notes with a boozy warmth. Chimay is also an example of a Belgian Trappist breweries&mdashone of 14 in the entire world.

For a modern American take on farmhouse ales (more on those in a sec), turn to Connecticut's Two Roads Brewing Company. Their expertise is clear in the light, fruity, spicy Workers' Comp. Now for the history: Farmhouse ales were brewed with leftover crops during the winter and then saisonniers, or seasonal workers, drank them in the summer. That's where the name of a sub-group of farmhouse ales comes from, saisons. Farmhouse ales are a loose category, but often identified by tart and funky flavors with a crisp dryness that's super refreshing.

Pennsylvania's Victory Brewing makes one of America's favorite takes on the Belgian tripel, which is usually fruity and spicy and on the stronger side, at 7.5-9.5% ABV. Golden Monkey packs notes of banana, clove, orange, and earthy hops, with a dry finish. Made since 1997, it set the bar for American breweries to try their hands at Belgian beers.

Ommegang's Three Philosophers is a special treat. It's a blend of two styles: a kriek and a quadrupel. A kriek is a lambic (more on this on the next slide) made with cherries, and a quadrupel is a strong, dark Belgian ale with caramel, molasses, bread, and pepper flavors. The combo is a lovely American twist on a Belgian classic that smells and tastes like brown sugar, dark fruit, chocolate, caramel, vanilla, and of course, cherries.

Okay, let's talk about lambics. Lambics are made with cherries (that's the kriek), raspberries, peaches, and more, for a sweet take on the original style. One of the best known and best loved versions is a raspberry version: Lindemans Framboise. It's sweet and juicy (and only 2.5% alcohol!) with a crisp twist of carbonation. And because lambics are fermented spontaneously, the final taste is unpredictable but usually tart, funky, and dry.

Collective Arts Brewing is a Canadian brewery known for emphasizing a mix of art and beer, so it's no surprise they got creative. Their Guava Gose is one of the most exciting takes on the style, a lush tropical vacation in a can. It's brewed with malted barley and malted wheat along with coriander and salty water for a finish that's tart, funky, crisp, and yep, a little salty. Like the lambic, goses a popular base for adding fruit.

Springdale's Lavenade Tart Ale is a Berliner weisse with lavender and lemon. It's very on trend with its dreamy fragrant character, and its punchy, zippy lemon is super refreshing, making it a must on warm days. American craft breweries keep pushing forward the evolution of German and Belgian-inspired Berliner weisses, a tart, bready, low-alcohol German style also commonly riffed on with different fruit additions.

No list of best beers would be complete without the Anchor Steam Beer, considered the first American craft beer by experts. Anchor Brewing first brewed their steam beer, otherwise known as a California Common, in San Francisco in 1896. They're still doing so today, making it one of the longest running commercial examples of an original American beer style. Called "steam beers," Commons are malty yet light and smooth amber brews. Anchor's Steam is every bit as refreshing today as it was nearly 125 years ago.

Sierra Nevada is a titan of American beer, having helped put craft beer on the map in 1979. You probably know them for their Pale Ale, a beer approachable enough for craft novices to love and nuanced enough to have garnered cult status among brewers. Its piney, citrusy hop character paved the way for America's love affair with the IPA, while the Sierra Nevada Pale Ale remains a staple in its own right.

While the Daisy Cutter Pale Ale from Half Acre Beer Company is a craft kid compared to the Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, it's still got a respectable decade under its belt. Ten years basically makes a beer a wise and revered elder in the craft brewing world. This Chicago-brewed pale ale has all the dank hoppiness of a more assertive IPA, but at a lighter, smoother clip, making it a more crushable source of hop flavor.

The India Pale Ale style was born out of England sending their pale beer to India with lots of hops that acted as preservatives in the 1800s. Today, it's one of the most popular styles in the United States because of its big, bold flavors, and Cigar City's Jai Alai is one of the most popular versions of that style. Named for a game invented in the Basque region of Spain, Jai Alai has in previous years been the best-selling craft six-pack in American grocery stores.

Let's talk West Coast vs. New England IPAs: West Coast IPAs are closer to the original form of the style. They're bright with a dry finish and most importantly, a bouquet of herbal, citrusy, bitter hop notes. More recently, New England IPAs came to represent a less bitter iteration of the style. They're hazy and juicy, often with lots of tropical fruit character and a smoothie-like quality. The Sip of Sunshine IPA from Vermont brewery Lawson's Finest Liquids is the best of both worlds. It's often classified as a New England IPA, or NEIPA, because of its tropical characteristics, but it has the floral hop quality and bitter punch of a West Coast take.

The Ithaca Flower Power IPA is a another form of West Coast meets Northeast for India Pale Ales. Brewer Jeff O'Neil had worked at several breweries in the Bay Area, and he brought his expertise in creating a pitch perfect West Coast IPA to New York when he went to work for Ithaca Beer Co. Flower Power is considered one of the most important beers in the industry because of how it introduced a West Coast style done right to the East.

California brewery Bear Republic Brewing Co. launched Racer 5 back when there were only 500 breweries in the United States. It paved the way for American IPAs with its flavor profile: notes of pine and citrus from Cascade and Chinook hops, balanced by subtle sweetness from the malt.

This is the beer that started the whole double IPA trend. Pliny the Elder from Californian brewery Russian River is responsible for Very Important Beer Moments: Brewer and now owner (with wife Natalie) Vinne Cilurzo is credited with inventing the double IPA, taking the West Coast IPA to a higher level of piney bitterness. Pliny the Elder also kick-started today's beer nerd culture. The lifestyle of lining up for brews, trading them, photographing and reviewing them for blogs and social media, that can essentially be drawn back to the hullabaloo around Pliny the Elder releases, excitement that still hasn't died down to this day.

Speaking of beer nerd culture: If you're an IPA fan, you might be aware of the style's own cult status. King Sue is a Double IPA from Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. in Decorah, IA. The brewery had wowed consumers with their IPA, Pseudo Sue, and doubled its hoppiness and tropical milkshake-y-ness for King Sue. The result is a perpetually sought after brew, an instant status symbol for your Instagram feed.

Heady Topper is a double IPA from Vermont brewery The Alchemist. Just as Racer 5 helped define the West Coast IPA and Pliny the Elder helped define the double IPA, Heady Topper helped define the hazy New England IPA. This beer is so good and has been so famously hard to find in the past that there are social media accounts dedicated to spotting it, people get on planes when they find out it's being sold somewhere, and when the brewery had a brewpub, customers would actually secretly bottle the beer in the bathroom to sell or trade. This double IPA is genre-defining and legendary&mdashmake sure you follow the can's instructions and drink it without a glass.


The A-Z of Beer Styles

Use this alphabetical list of triggers as a guide to help you when describing possible characteristics of a specific beer style.

  • Ranges: not detectable, mild, noticeable, harsh
  • A synonym for ethyl alcohol or ethanol, the colorless primary alcohol component of beer.
  • Alcohol ranges for beer vary from less than 3.2% to greater than 14% ABV. Sensed in aroma, flavor and palate of beer
  • Fusel alcohol can also exist in beer

Brewing and Conditioning Process

  • Brewers use a wide variety of techniques to modify the brewing process. Some of the variables they play with might include variable mashing, steeping, unique fermentation temperatures, multiple yeast additions, barrel aging and blending, dry hopping and bottle conditioned.

Carbonation (CO2): Visual

  • Ranges: none, slow, medium, fast rising bubbles
  • Carbonation is a main ingredient in beer. It lends body or weight on the tongue and stimulates the trigeminal nerves, which sense temperature, texture and pain in the face. Carbonation can be detected as an aroma (carbonic acid). It also affects appearance and is what creates the collar of foam common to most beer styles.
  • Carbonation can be naturally occurring (produced by yeast during fermentation) or added to beer under pressure. Nitrogen can also be added to beer, providing smaller bubbles and a softer mouthfeel compared to CO2.

Clarity: The degree to which solids in suspension are absent in beer different from color and brightness.

  • Ranges: brilliant, clear, slight haze, hazy, opaque
  • Solids can include unfermented sugars, proteins, yeast sediments and more.
  • The degree to which solids are present in solution is referred to as turbidity.

Color (SRM): See SRM under Quantitative above.

Country of Origin: The country from which a style originates

Food Pairing: Cheese, Entree, Dessert

Glass: The recommended glassware for each beer style.

Hop Ingredients

  • Flavor and aroma ranges: citrus, tropical, fruity, floral, herbal, onion-garlic, sweaty, spicy, woody, green, pine, spruce, resinous
  • Bitterness ranges: restrained, moderate, aggressive, harsh
  • Hops deliver resins and essential oils that influence beer’s aroma, flavor, bitterness, head retention, astringency, and perceived sweetness. They also increase beer’s stability and shelf life.
  • Brewers today use well over 100 different varieties of hops worldwide. Hops grown in the U.S. contribute an estimated 30 percent to the global supply.

Malt Ingredients

  • Flavor and aroma ranges: bread flour, grainy, biscuit, bready, toast, caramel, prune-like, roast, chocolate, coffee, smoky, acrid
  • Malt has been called the soul of beer. It is the main fermentable ingredient, providing the sugars that yeast use to create alcohol and carbonation.
  • Malt is converted barley or other grains that have been steeped, germinated, heated, kilned (or roasted in a drum), cooled, dried and then rested.
  • A wide variety of barley and other malts are used to make beer, including pale malt (pilsner and pale two-row), higher temperature kilned malt (Munich and Vienna), roasted/specialty malt (chocolate and black) and unmalted barley. Wheat malt is commonly used as well.
  • Malt provides fermentable and non-fermentable sugars and proteins that influence beer’s aroma, alcohol, body, color, flavor and head retention.

Other Ingredients

  • Adjuncts are ingredients that have typically not been malted, but are a source of fermentable sugars.
  • Common adjuncts include: candy sugar, honey, molasses, refined sugar, treacle, maple syrup
  • Unmalted starchy adjuncts: oats, rye, wheat, corn/maize, rice
    • Note: Many of these grains can be malted to create unique flavors compared to their unmalted counterparts.

    Oxidative/Aged Qualities

    • Can come from hops, malt or yeast. Only listed where appropriate for the specific style.
    • Aroma/Flavor: almond, blackcurrant, E-2-nonenal (papery/cardboard), honey, metallic, sherry, sweat socks, others
    • Color: Beer darkens over time due to oxygen ingress.
    • Palate refers to the non-taste sensations felt on the mouth and tongue when tasting a beer. The palate of a beer can be sensed as:
    • Astringency
      • Ranges: low, medium(-), medium, medium(+), high
      • Ranges: drying, soft, mouth-coating, sticky
      • Ranges: low, medium, high
      • Ranges: short (less than 15 seconds), medium (up to 60 seconds), long (more than 60 seconds)

      Serving Temperature

      • Storage of draught beer should remain at 38° F to retain the level of carbonation created during fermentation.
      • The service temperature of beer has an impact on the sensory aspect of a beer.
      • In general, a beer will exhibit an increase in perceived aromas and flavors if served warmer than a beer that is served at a cooler temperature.
      • A general rule of thumb calls for ales to be served at a warmer temperature (45-55° F) than their lager counterparts (40-45° F).
      • Common taste descriptors: chalk, flint, sulfur and more
      • Beer is mostly water, which makes water quite an important ingredient. Some brewers make their beer without altering the chemistry of their water sources. Many do modify the water to make it most suitable to deliver the beer characteristics they hope to highlight. It provides minerals and ions that add various qualities to beer.
      • Common minerals: carbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate

      Yeast, Microorganisms and Fermentation Byproducts

      • Yeast eats sugars from malted barley and other fermentables, producing carbonation, alcohol and aromatic compounds. The flavor of yeast differs based on yeast strain, temperature, time exposed to the beer, oxygen and other variables.
      • Types of Yeast:
        • Ale: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (ester driven). Commonly referred to as top fermenting yeast, it most often ferments at warmer temperatures (60-70F).
        • Lager: Saccharomyces Pastorianus (often lends sulfuric compounds). Commonly referred to as bottom fermenting yeast, it most often ferments at cooler temperatures (45-55F).
        • Weizen Yeast: Common to some German-style wheat beers and is considered an ale yeast.
        • Brettanomyces: wild yeast with flavors like barnyard, tropical fruit, and more.
        • Microorganisms: (bacteria) Acetobacter (produces acetic acid), Lactobacillus/Pediococcus (produce lactic acid), others

        Byproducts of Fermentation

        • For a robust spreadsheet on many byproducts or agents in beer see Flavor Components in Beer (PDF)
        • Common byproducts of yeast fermentation:
          • Esters:
            • Aromas (volatiles): apple, apricot, banana, blackcurrant, cherry, fig, grapefruit, kiwi, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, raisin, raspberry, strawberry, others
            • Common esters include:
              • Isoamyl acetate (common from weizen ale yeast): banana, pear
              • Ethyl acetate: nail polish remover, solvent
              • Ethyl hexanoate: red apple, fennel
              • Common phenols include:
                • 4-vinyl guaiacol: clove, cinnamon, vanilla
                • Chlorophenols: antiseptic, mouthwash
                • Syringol: smoky, campfire
                • Tannins/Polyphenols: velvet, astringent, sandpaper
                • Common byproducts include (when acceptable to style):
                  • 4-ethyl-phenol: barnyard, mice
                  • 4-ethyl-guaiacol: smoked meat, clove
                  • 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol: lightstruck
                  • 2,3-butanedione (Diacetyl)
                  • Acetaldehyde
                  • Dimethyl sulphide (DMS)
                  • Hydrogen sulphide

                  Q: Which Scottish-based sweet treat consists of a layer of biscuit topped with Italian meringue and chocolate?
                  A: Tunnock’s Teacake

                  Q: In which month of the year is National Biscuit Day celebrated?
                  A: May

                  Q: What’s the name given to a mid-morning break at which tea and biscuits are traditionally taken?
                  A: Elevenses

                  Q: Which biscuit has come in flavours including Birthday Cake, Red Velvet, Pumpkin Spice and Peanut Butter?
                  A: Oreos

                  Q: Which Sesame Street character is renowned for his love of biscuits?
                  A: Cookie Monster

                  Q: According to a 2019 YouGov poll, what is Britain’s most popular biscuit?
                  A: McVities’ Milk Chocolate Digestive

                  Q: Which member of the Royal Family had a cake at their wedding made from 1,700 Rich Tea biscuits?
                  A: Prince William

                  Q: Which language does the word biscuit originate from?
                  A: French

                  Q: Which chocolate covered biscuit is famous for the ad slogan ‘P-P-P-pick up a…’?
                  A: Penguin

                  Q: According to a 2009 report nearly half the UK population has been injured by a biscuit – but which biscuit was revealed to have caused the most injuries?
                  A: Custard Cream


                  Cooking Videos

                  Check out these Asian inspired recipes from the Kikkoman kitchen. Enjoy authentic Asian or Asian fusion cuisines directly from your home kitchen with these easy recipes. Our recipes include appetizers, side dishes, salads, entrees, soups, vegetables, marinades, salad dressings and breads. You’ll find delicious dishes to cook up for easy, weeknight meals with your family &mdash including fried chicken, kara-áge, fish, shrimp, beef, pork, pasta, rice, turkey, chicken, as well as vegetarian options.


                  Contents

                  In early forms of English, and in the Scandinavian languages, the usual word for beer was the word whose Modern English form is ale. [13]

                  The word beer comes into present-day English from Old English bēor, itself from Common Germanic although the word is not attested in the East Germanic branch of the language-family, it is found throughout the West Germanic and North Germanic dialects (modern Dutch and German bier, Old Norse bjórr). The earlier etymology of the word is debated: the three main theories are that the word originates in Proto-Germanic *beuzą (putatively from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeusóm), meaning "brewer's yeast, beer dregs" that it is related to the word barley or that it was somehow borrowed from Latin bibere, "to drink". [14] [15] [13]

                  In Old English and Old Norse, the beer-word did not denote a malted alcoholic drink like ale, but a sweet, potent drink made from honey and the juice of one or more fruits other than grapes, much less ubiquitous than ale, perhaps served in the kind of tiny drinking cups sometimes found in early medieval grave-goods: a drink more like mead or cider. In German, however, the meaning of the beer-word expanded to cover the meaning of the ale-word already before our earliest surviving written evidence. As German hopped ale became fashionable in England in the late Middle Ages, the English word beer took on the German meaning, and thus in English too beer came during the early modern period to denote hopped, malt-based alcoholic drinks. [13]

                  Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared alcoholic drinks. The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000-year-old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. [16] [17] There is evidence that beer was produced at Göbekli Tepe during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (around 8500 BC to 5500 BC). [18] The earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. [19] [20] It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back even further—to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. [21] Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, [22] [23] and archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. [24] Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk (modern day Iraq) were paid by their employers with volumes of beer. [25] During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, Egypt, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment that was crucial to the pyramids' construction. [26]

                  Some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer examples include a prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi", [27] which served as both a prayer and a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people, and the ancient advice ("Fill your belly. Day and night make merry") to Gilgamesh, recorded in the Epic of Gilgamesh, by the ale-wife Siduri may, at least in part, have referred to the consumption of beer. [28] The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, Syria, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. [29] A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice (amylolytic fermentation) the rice was probably prepared for fermentation by chewing or malting. [30] [31] During the Vedic period in Ancient India, there are records of consumption of the beer-like sura. [32] [33] Xenophon noted that during his travels, beer was being produced in Armenia. [34]

                  Almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation, and can thus be utilized in the brewing of beer. It is likely that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer. Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. [35] [36] [37] [38]

                  Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, [39] and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. [40] The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers may have contained fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs. [41] What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot [42] and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. [43]

                  In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot (purity law), perhaps the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water, hops and barley-malt. [44] Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. [45] The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results.

                  In 1912, brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States. This innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. [46]

                  As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. [47] As of 2006, more than 133 billion litres (35 billion US gallons), the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold per year, producing total global revenues of US$294.5 billion. In 2010, China's beer consumption hit 450 million hectolitres (45 billion litres), or nearly twice that of the United States, but only 5 per cent sold were premium draught beers, compared with 50 per cent in France and Germany. [48]

                  A recent and widely publicized study suggests that sudden decreases in barley production due to extreme drought and heat could in the future cause substantial volatility in the availability and price of beer. [49]

                  The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countries, which from the late 19th century largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only. However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the US in 1978, [50] though individual states were allowed to pass their own laws limiting production, [51] allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby.

                  The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic drink known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast.

                  The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is known as "mashing". Hot water (known as "liquor" in brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts (known as "grist") in a mash tun. [52] The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours, [53] during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The grains are then washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist. [54]

                  Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge, collecting the original wort and the sparge water together. However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. This process is known as second (and third) runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing. [55]

                  The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a kettle, or "copper" (so-called because these vessels were traditionally made from copper), [56] and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer. [57]

                  After boiling, the hopped wort is cooled, ready for the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process that requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing ethanol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear. [58]

                  During fermentation most of the carbon dioxide is allowed to escape through a trap and the beer is left with carbonation of only about one atmosphere of pressure. The carbonation is often increased either by transferring the beer to a pressure vessel such as a keg and introducing pressurized carbon dioxide, or by transferring it before the fermentation is finished so that carbon dioxide pressure builds up inside the container as the fermentation finishes. Sometimes the beer is put unfiltered (so it still contains yeast) into bottles with some added sugar, which then produces the desired amount of carbon dioxide inside the bottle. [7]

                  Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity. [59] When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other sorts of beer. [60]

                  The basic ingredients of beer are water a starch source, such as malted barley, able to be saccharified (converted to sugars) then fermented (converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide) a brewer's yeast to produce the fermentation and a flavouring such as hops. [61] A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary carbohydrate source, such as maize (corn), rice, wheat, or sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used alongside malted barley. [62] Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, and potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others. [63] The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.

                  Water is the main ingredient of beer, accounting for 93% of its weight. [64] Though water itself is, ideally, flavorless, its level of dissolved minerals, specifically, bicarbonate ion, does influence beer's finished taste. [65] Due to the mineral properties of each region's water, specific areas were originally the sole producers of certain types of beer, each identifiable by regional characteristics. [66] Regional geology accords that Dublin's hard water is well-suited to making stout, such as Guinness, while the Plzeň Region's soft water is ideal for brewing Pilsner (pale lager), such as Pilsner Urquell. [66] The waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. [67]

                  The starch source, termed as the "mash ingredients", in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. [68] Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers. [69] Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because its fibrous hull remains attached to the grain during threshing. After malting, barley is milled, which finally removes the hull, breaking it into large pieces. These pieces remain with the grain during the mash, and act as a filter bed during lautering, when sweet wort is separated from insoluble grain material. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beer, made with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye. [70]

                  Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops. [71] The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops". The first historical mention of the use of hops in beer was from 822 AD in monastery rules written by Adalhard the Elder, also known as Adalard of Corbie, [45] [72] though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century. [45] [72] Before the thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer was flavoured with other plants for instance, grains of paradise or alehoof. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used. [73] Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales company [74] and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company, [75] use plants other than hops for flavouring.

                  Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms and aids in "head retention", [76] [77] the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative. [78] [79]

                  Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour. [80] The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are the top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus. [81] Brettanomyces ferments lambics, [82] and Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian weissbier. [83] Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures. [84]

                  Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents or finings to beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as wheat beers. [85] Examples of clarifying agents include isinglass, obtained from swimbladders of fish Irish moss, a seaweed kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii Polyclar (artificial) and gelatin. [86] If a beer is marked "suitable for vegans", it was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents. [87]

                  The history of breweries in the 21st century has included larger breweries absorbing smaller breweries in order to ensure economy of scale. [ clarification needed ] In 2002, South African Breweries bought the North American Miller Brewing Company to found SABMiller, becoming the second largest brewery, after North American Anheuser-Busch. In 2004, the Belgian Interbrew was the third largest brewery by volume and the Brazilian AmBev was the fifth largest. They merged into InBev, becoming the largest brewery. In 2007, SABMiller surpassed InBev and Anheuser-Bush when it acquired Royal Grolsch, brewer of Dutch premium beer brand Grolsch in 2007. [89] In 2008, when InBev (the second-largest) bought Anheuser-Busch (the third largest), the new Anheuser-Busch InBev company became again the largest brewer in the world. [90]

                  As of 2020 [update] , according to the market research firm Technavio, AB InBev remains the largest brewing company in the world, with Heineken second, CR Snow third, Carlsberg fourth, and Molson Coors fifth. [91]

                  A microbrewery, or craft brewery, produces a limited amount of beer. The maximum amount of beer a brewery can produce and still be classed as a microbrewery varies by region and by authority in the US it is 15,000 US beer barrels (1.8 megalitres 390 thousand imperial gallons 460 thousand US gallons) a year. [92] A brewpub is a type of microbrewery that incorporates a pub or other drinking establishment. The highest density of breweries in the world, most of them microbreweries, exists in the German Region of Franconia, especially in the district of Upper Franconia, which has about 200 breweries. [93] [94] The Benedictine Weihenstephan brewery in Bavaria, Germany, can trace its roots to the year 768, as a document from that year refers to a hop garden in the area paying a tithe to the monastery. The brewery was licensed by the City of Freising in 1040, and therefore is the oldest working brewery in the world. [95]

                  While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. [96] The traditional European brewing regions—Germany, Belgium, England and the Czech Republic—have local varieties of beer. [97]

                  English writer Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names. [98] Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989.

                  Top-fermented beers are most commonly produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast which clumps and rises to the surface, [99] typically between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others. [100]

                  After the introduction of hops into England from Flanders in the 15th century, "ale" referred to an unhopped fermented drink, "beer" being used to describe a brew with an infusion of hops. [101]

                  Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973 [102] for "beer brewed from traditional ingredients, matured by secondary fermentation in the container from which it is dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous carbon dioxide". It is applied to bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers.

                  Pale ale is a beer which uses a top-fermenting yeast [103] and predominantly pale malt. It is one of the world's major beer styles.

                  Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow fermenting yeast. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name "porter" was first used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer popular with the street and river porters of London. [104] This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677. [105] The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined. [106]

                  Mild ale has a predominantly malty palate. It is usually dark coloured with an abv of 3% to 3.6%, although there are lighter hued milds as well as stronger examples reaching 6% abv and higher.

                  Wheat beer is brewed with a large proportion of wheat although it often also contains a significant proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually top-fermented. [107] The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style.

                  Lambic, a beer of Belgium, is naturally fermented using wild yeasts, rather than cultivated. Many of these are not strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus are common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness. [108]

                  Lager is cool fermented beer. Pale lagers are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. Many are of the “pilsner” type. The name "lager" comes from the German "lagern" for "to store", as brewers around Bavaria stored beer in cool cellars and caves during the warm summer months. These brewers noticed that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of sediment, when stored in cool conditions. [109]

                  Lager yeast is a cool bottom-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7–12 °C (45–54 °F) (the fermentation phase), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0–4 °C (32–39 °F) (the lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a "cleaner"-tasting beer. [110]

                  With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks.

                  Beer is measured and assessed by bitterness, by strength and by colour. The perceived bitterness is measured by the International Bitterness Units scale (IBU), defined in co-operation between the American Society of Brewing Chemists and the European Brewery Convention. [111] The international scale was a development of the European Bitterness Units scale, often abbreviated as EBU, and the bitterness values should be identical. [112]

                  Colour

                  Beer colour is determined by the malt. [113] The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers made from malt dried with the fuel coke. Coke was first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it was not until around 1703 that the term pale ale was used. [114] [115]

                  In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen in the present-day Czech Republic. [116] The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation (fizzy bubbles) and a typical alcohol by volume content of around 5%. [117] The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller.

                  Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted barley. [118] [119]

                  Strength

                  Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to around 14% abv, though this strength can be increased to around 20% by re-pitching with champagne yeast, [120] and to 55% abv by the freeze-distilling process. [121] The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice or beer style. [122] The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%. [123] The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv. [124] In Belgium, some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%–4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools. [125]

                  The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers) to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a by-product of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast in higher concentrations typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts and consequently decreases the alcohol content.

                  The weakest beers are dealcoholized beers, which typically have less than 0.05% alcohol (also called "near beer") and light beers, which usually have 4% alcohol.

                  The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of the 20th century. Vetter 33, a 10.5% abv (33 degrees Plato, hence Vetter "33") doppelbock, was listed in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest beer at that time, [126] [127] though Samichlaus, by the Swiss brewer Hürlimann, had also been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at 14% abv. [128] [129] [130] Since then, some brewers have used champagne yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers. Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with Millennium, [120] and then surpassed that amount to 25.6% abv with Utopias. The strongest beer brewed in Britain was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv beer. [131] [132] In September 2011, the Scottish brewery BrewDog produced Ghost Deer, which, at 28%, they claim to be the world's strongest beer produced by fermentation alone. [133]

                  The product claimed to be the strongest beer made is Schorschbräu's 2011 Schorschbock 57 with 57,5%. [134] [135] It was preceded by The End of History, a 55% Belgian ale, [121] made by BrewDog in 2010. The same company had previously made Sink The Bismarck!, a 41% abv IPA, [136] and Tactical Nuclear Penguin, a 32% abv Imperial stout. Each of these beers are made using the eisbock method of fractional freezing, in which a strong ale is partially frozen and the ice is repeatedly removed, until the desired strength is reached, [137] [138] a process that may class the product as spirits rather than beer. [139] The German brewery Schorschbräu's Schorschbock, a 31% abv eisbock, [140] [141] [142] and Hair of the Dog's Dave, a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994, used the same fractional freezing method. [143] A 60% abv blend of beer with whiskey was jokingly claimed as the strongest beer by a Dutch brewery in July 2010. [144] [145]

                  Draught

                  Draught (also spelled "draft") beer from a pressurised keg using a lever-style dispenser and a spout is the most common method of dispensing in bars around the world. A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers may be served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls. In traditional pubs, the pull levers for major beer brands may include the beer's logo and trademark.

                  In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a nitrogen-pressurised ball inside a can which creates a dense, tight head, similar to beer served from a nitrogen system. [146] The words draft and draught can be used as marketing terms to describe canned or bottled beers containing a beer widget, or which are cold-filtered rather than pasteurised.

                  Cask-conditioned ales (or cask ales) are unfiltered and unpasteurised beers. These beers are termed "real ale" by the CAMRA organisation. Typically, when a cask arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a frame called a "stillage" which is designed to hold it steady and at the right angle, and then allowed to cool to cellar temperature (typically between 11–13 °C or 52–55 °F), [147] before being tapped and vented—a tap is driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now uppermost. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well as to fully condition—this period can take anywhere from several hours to several days. At this point the beer is ready to sell, either being pulled through a beer line with a hand pump, or simply being "gravity-fed" directly into the glass.

                  Draught beer's environmental impact can be 68% lower than bottled beer due to packaging differences. [148] [149] A life cycle study of one beer brand, including grain production, brewing, bottling, distribution and waste management, shows that the CO2 emissions from a 6-pack of micro-brew beer is about 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds). [150] The loss of natural habitat potential from the 6-pack of micro-brew beer is estimated to be 2.5 square metres (26 square feet). [151] Downstream emissions from distribution, retail, storage and disposal of waste can be over 45% of a bottled micro-brew beer's CO2 emissions. [150] Where legal, the use of a refillable jug, reusable bottle or other reusable containers to transport draught beer from a store or a bar, rather than buying pre-bottled beer, can reduce the environmental impact of beer consumption. [152]

                  Packaging

                  Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when packaged in bottles and cans. [153] However, bottle conditioned beers retain some yeast—either by being unfiltered, or by being filtered and then reseeded with fresh yeast. [154] It is usually recommended that the beer be poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom of the bottle. However, some drinkers prefer to pour in the yeast this practice is customary with wheat beers. Typically, when serving a hefeweizen wheat beer, 90% of the contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Alternatively, the bottle may be inverted prior to opening. Glass bottles are always used for bottle conditioned beers.

                  Many beers are sold in cans, though there is considerable variation in the proportion between different countries. In Sweden in 2001, 63.9% of beer was sold in cans. [155] People either drink from the can or pour the beer into a glass. A technology developed by Crown Holdings for the 2010 FIFA World Cup is the 'full aperture' can, so named because the entire lid is removed during the opening process, turning the can into a drinking cup. [156] Cans protect the beer from light (thereby preventing "skunked" beer) and have a seal less prone to leaking over time than bottles. Cans were initially viewed as a technological breakthrough for maintaining the quality of a beer, then became commonly associated with less expensive, mass-produced beers, even though the quality of storage in cans is much like bottles. [157] Plastic (PET) bottles are used by some breweries. [158]

                  Temperature

                  The temperature of a beer has an influence on a drinker's experience warmer temperatures reveal the range of flavours in a beer but cooler temperatures are more refreshing. Most drinkers prefer pale lager to be served chilled, a low- or medium-strength pale ale to be served cool, while a strong barley wine or imperial stout to be served at room temperature. [159]

                  Beer writer Michael Jackson proposed a five-level scale for serving temperatures: well chilled (7 °C or 45 °F) for "light" beers (pale lagers) chilled (8 °C or 46 °F) for Berliner Weisse and other wheat beers lightly chilled (9 °C or 48 °F) for all dark lagers, altbier and German wheat beers cellar temperature (13 °C or 55 °F) for regular British ale, stout and most Belgian specialities and room temperature (15.5 °C or 60 °F) for strong dark ales (especially trappist beer) and barley wine. [160]

                  Drinking chilled beer began with the development of artificial refrigeration and by the 1870s, was spread in those countries that concentrated on brewing pale lager. [161] Chilling beer makes it more refreshing, [162] though below 15.5 °C (60 °F) the chilling starts to reduce taste awareness [163] and reduces it significantly below 10 °C (50 °F). [164] Beer served unchilled—either cool or at room temperature—reveal more of their flavours. Cask Marque, a non-profit UK beer organisation, has set a temperature standard range of 12°–14 °C (53°–57 °F) for cask ales to be served. [165]

                  Vessels

                  Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a beer bottle or a can or at music festivals and some bars and nightclubs, from a plastic cup. The shape of the glass from which beer is consumed can influence the perception of the beer and can define and accent the character of the style. [166] Breweries offer branded glassware intended only for their own beers as a marketing promotion, as this increases sales of their product. [167]

                  The pouring process has an influence on a beer's presentation. The rate of flow from the tap or other serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour (in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence the end result, such as the size and longevity of the head, lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the glass as the beer is drunk), and the release of carbonation. [168] A beer tower is a beer dispensing device, usually found in bars and pubs, that consists of a cylinder attached to a beer cooling device at the bottom. Beer is dispensed from the beer tower into a drinking vessel.

                  A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption. [169] Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men) is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death. [170] Some of these studies combined former ethanol drinkers and lifelong abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, which hides the health benefits of lifelong abstention from ethanol. The long-term health effects of continuous, moderate or heavy alcohol consumption include the risk of developing alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. [171] It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. [172] [173] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. [173] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years [174] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States. [170] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking alcoholic beverages. [170] [175] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol. [176]

                  It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption. A 2004 study, however, found a link between binge drinking and a beer belly. But with most overconsumption, it is more a problem of improper exercise and overconsumption of carbohydrates than the product itself. [177] Several diet books quote beer as having an undesirably high glycemic index of 110, the same as maltose however, the maltose in beer undergoes metabolism by yeast during fermentation so that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only trace amounts of sugars, including maltose. [178]

                  Beers vary in their nutritional content. [179] The ingredients used to make beer, including the yeast, provide a rich source of nutrients therefore beer may contain nutrients including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin, chromium and B vitamins. Beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread", [180] though beer is not a meal in itself. [181]

                  NUTRITION INFORMATION OF DIFFERENT BEERS (SERVING SIZE 12 OZ./355ml)
                  Beer Brand Carbs (g) Alcohol Calories
                  Budweiser Select 55 1.8 2.4% 55
                  Coors Light 5 4.2% 102
                  Guinness Draught 10 4% 126
                  Sierra Nevada Bigfoot 30.3 9.6% 330

                  In many societies, beer is the most popular alcoholic drink. Various social traditions and activities are associated with beer drinking, such as playing cards, darts, or other pub games attending beer festivals engaging in zythology (the study of beer) [182] [183] visiting a series of pubs in one evening visiting breweries beer-oriented tourism or rating beer. [184] Drinking games, such as beer pong, are also popular. [185] A relatively new profession is that of the beer sommelier, who informs restaurant patrons about beers and food pairings.

                  Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many societies [186] [187] and is consumed in countries all over the world. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries such as Syria, and in some African countries. Sales of beer are four times those of wine, which is the second most popular alcoholic drink. [188]

                  A study published in the Neuropsychopharmacology journal in 2013 revealed the finding that the flavour of beer alone could provoke dopamine activity in the brain of the male participants, who wanted to drink more as a result. The 49 men in the study were subject to positron emission tomography scans, while a computer-controlled device sprayed minute amounts of beer, water and a sports drink onto their tongues. Compared with the taste of the sports drink, the taste of beer significantly increased the participants desire to drink. Test results indicated that the flavour of the beer triggered a dopamine release, even though alcohol content in the spray was insufficient for the purpose of becoming intoxicated. [189]

                  Some breweries have developed beers to pair with food. [190] [191] [192] Wine writer Malcolm Gluck disputed the need to pair beer with food, while beer writers Roger Protz and Melissa Cole contested that claim. [193] [194] [195]

                  Around the world, there are many traditional and ancient starch-based drinks classed as beer. In Africa, there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or millet, such as Oshikundu [196] in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia. [197] Kyrgyzstan also has a beer made from millet it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-like drink called "Bozo". [198] Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalayas. [199] Further east in China are found Huangjiu and Choujiu—traditional rice-based drinks related to beer.

                  The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from germinated maize (corn) while the indigenous peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional drink made since pre-Columbian times by chewing manioc so that an enzyme (amylase) present in human saliva can break down the starch into fermentable sugars [200] this is similar to Masato in Peru. [201]

                  Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland, Kvass in Russia and Ukraine, and Bouza in Sudan. 4000 years ago fermented bread was used in Mesopotamia. Food waste activists got inspired by this ancient recipes and use leftover bread to replace a third of the malted barley that would otherwise be used for brewing their craft ale. [202]

                  Beer contains the phenolic acids 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid. Alkaline hydrolysis experiments show that most of the phenolic acids are present as bound forms and only a small portion can be detected as free compounds. [203] Hops, and beer made with it, contain 8-prenylnaringenin which is a potent phytoestrogen. [204] Hop also contains myrcene, humulene, xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, myrcenol, linalool, tannins, and resin. The alcohol 2M2B is a component of hops brewing. [205]

                  Barley, in the form of malt, brings the condensed tannins prodelphinidins B3, B9 and C2 into beer. Tryptophol, tyrosol, and phenylethanol are aromatic higher alcohols found in beer [206] as secondary products of alcoholic fermentation [207] (products also known as congeners) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


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